1 Ludman & Boyle. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy. Journal of Asthma and Allergy. 2015:8 Pages 75-86.
2 Jubilant HollisterStier Allergy. Instructions and Dosage Schedule for Allergenic Extracts: Hymenoptera Venom Products
3 Mylan. EpiPen/EpiPen Jr Prescribing Information. Retrieved 2018: https://www.epipen.com/hcp/-/media/files/epipen/prescribing%20information.pdf
4 Posner & Camargo. Update on the usage and safety of epinephrine auto-injectors, 2017. Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety. 2017.
5 Boyle. Epinephrine Auto Injector Use One Year after Training: A Randomized Controlled Comparison of Two Different Devices. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 135, Number 2, Abstracts AB209.
6 Mylan. About EpiPen and Generic Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 2018: https://www.epipen.com/about-epipen-and-generic/faq
7 Golden. Insect Sting Anaphylaxis. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America, Volume 27, Issue 2, May 2007, Pages 261-272.
8 T. T. Song, M. Worm, P. Lieberman. Anaphylaxis treatment: current barriers to adrenaline auto‐injector use. Allergy, Volume 69, 2014, Pages 983-991.
9Throughout this site the term “bees and wasps” is used as a generalized description of stinging insects. The complete list of VIT insects include: honey bee, wasp, white-faced hornet, yellow hornet, and yellow jacket.
10 David K. Golden, M. J. (2011). Stinging insect hypersensitivity: A practice parameter update 2011. J. Allergy Clin Immunol, 852-854.e23.
11 U.S. Census Bureau. (2017, July 1). Quick Facts United States. Retrieved from United States Census Bureau: https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045217#PST045217
12 Goldberg, A., Confino-Cohen, R. Insect sting-inflicted systemic reactions: attitudes of patients with insect venom allergy regarding after-sting behavior and proper administration of epinephrine. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 106 (6): 1184-1189, 2000.
13 Current state of follow-up care for patients with Hymenoptera venom anaphylaxis in southwest Germany Major impact of early information. Allergo J Int. 2018; 27(1): 4–14. Published online 2018 Jan 16. doi: 10.1007/s40629-017-0046-7.